The psychologist Dr. Abraham Maslow in his studies of “self-actualizing people” made some interesting discoveries about the fathers of eminent offspring, particularly sons. It seems that certain dads are perceived as “not successful.” These dads are not necessarily losers, but rather men who risked much and fell short. Maslow’s inference was that sons may succeed because their fathers failed.
James McNeill Whistler and his dad George are typical of this profile. George, an army engineer and entrepreneur had trouble with jobs and personal finances. Frequent work changes, employee mistrust and professional misjudgment stalked his life. Nevertheless, exuding bravado, he charmed the Tsar of Russia and died while attempting an ambitious plan to build a railway through four hundred miles of Siberian swamp. In Dr. Maslow’s research the sons of such adventurers who go on to achieve highly are disorderly, sloppy, anarchic, chaotic, vague, doubtful, indefinite and inexact. Maslow considered these to be desirable characteristics for success in the arts and for life in general. Also, these sorts of sons have little need to please others and are often indifferent to what others think.
Whistler, the son, exhibited these characteristics. He also carried on the family tradition of cleverness, wit, wisdom, quarreling and publicity. In 1890 he wrote a book about his movements among the glitterati: The Gentle Art of Making Enemies. Being a celebrity was Whistler’s game. Driven to excel, he mastered painting, etching and lithography as well as illustration and interior decoration. Along with his disorderly self-focus came unique imagery and pioneer insights. He named his paintings for types of musical compositions such as nocturnes and symphonies. He believed paintings, like music, ought to be abstract. Forms were to be more important than subject matter. His work was characterized by flattened pictorial elements and decentralized or unsymmetrical compositions.
According to Maslow the traits needed for eminence are “childlike spontaneity, fearlessness in the face of the unknown, attraction to the mysterious and the puzzling.” He also implied a father figure who started something that needed some sort of completion.
PS: “Art and joy go together, with bold openness, and high head, and ready hand – fearing naught and dreading no exposure.” (James Abbot McNeill Whistler, 1834-1903)
Esoterica: Father or no father, what is at the base of all this is an unrequited ego. Without ego-power the potential creator goes nowhere. Unfinished business, however enacted, is a force in the attainment of greatness. “As far as painting is concerned there is only Degas and myself.” (Whistler)
This letter was originally published as “Whistler’s father” on August 13, 2004.
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“Two and two continue to make four, in spite of the whine of the amateur for three, or the cry of the critic for five.” (James Abbott McNeill Whistler)